The 28th Anniversary of the Death of Junko Furuta

Yesterday marked the 28th anniversary of the death of Junko Furuta.  She was murdered on the 4th of January 1989, after having been kept captive and tortured for 41 days.

Back then I was working in Tokyo.  I remember reading the newspaper about the murder which was known as THE CONCRETE-ENCASED HIGH SCHOOL GIRL MURDER CASE.  From the sound of it, I understood that this poor girl had been killed by being buried in concrete alive.  The truth was in fact far worse than that.  If that had been the way Junko was killed, she would have been set free from tremendous terror and pain much, much earlier.

I believe that because of the extraordinary brutality of the crime, the newspapers deliberately did not report the details of the horrific ordeal inflicted on her by (mainly) four teenagers.  It was after the internet became commonplace that I learned the details of her murder.  Shocked by what Junko had really gone through, my heart rate remained high and I could hardly sleep that night.  Japan is one of the safest countries on earth, yet this unbelievably brutal murder was committed there.

If you google her name, there are a lot of links in English and so on, but some details seem to be incorrect.  I have recently come across the court documents of the case in Japanese, so believing that they are genuine, I would like to write about Junko’s murder.  Please note that not all of what I write comes from the court documents, but from sources I believe are credible.

WARNING:  THIS ARTICLE INCLUDES DESCRIPTION OF INHUMAN, BRUTAL AND ATROCIOUS TORTURE AND MURDER.

*            *            *            *            *            *            *            *

Junko Furuta was born on the 18th of January 1971.  She was a bright and popular girl with many friends.  After graduating from the high school four months later in March, she was to start working for a company from April 1989.  On the 25th of November 1988 at around 8:30PM, she was cycling home after a part-time job, looking forward to watching the last episode of her favourite TV drama.

2b           2aa

*            *            *            *            *            *            *            *

Teenager ‘A’, the leader of the four, was born in April 1970 as the first son of his parents.  With both parents working and gaining income, the family was well off, but dysfunctional due to discord between the parents.  A started showing his aggressive nature since his primary school years by stealing, bullying and vandalism.  As he became violent within the family, his father went to school for advice.  In the middle high school he passed the three years without causing much trouble; he became good at jūdō, devoted himself to it and left good records.  He moved on to a high school which was famous for being good at jūdō.  The practice was hard and he was bullied by his seniors.  As a result, half a year later he left the jūdō club and another half a year later left school.  He started to work to become a tiler, but around that time joined a motorcycle gang.  Having committed several criminal offense such as causing bodily injury, unauthorized entry to buildings and theft, he was placed under probation.  Having left the motorcycle gang, for a year or so he appeared settled.  He worked hard as a tiler, pleasing his boss.  He started living with his girlfriend who was teenager D‘s elder sister.  Dreaming of marrying her, he started to save money.  In May 1988 he obtained a driving license and was presented by his father with a brand new car in July.  Since around August, however, he became dissatisfied of his low wages and stopped turning up for work.  Getting to know a yakuza member through his former classmate, he started selling fake brand goods, working as a Tekiya, looking after a yakuza office etc.  He also started inhaling paint thinner.

Teenager B was born in May 1971.  His parents were separated when he was young.  He lived with his mother and sister the majority of time, spending only two months with his father when he was ten.  Good at sports, he did not show any sign of being a troublemaker, until he suffered a complex fracture in his right foot while skiing in January 1986.  Unable to carry on with sports, he became lazy with studies and was expelled from the high school in November 1987.  Working as an apprentice of an electrician, he enrolled at night school, but soon lost interest and was absent from the classes.  From about May 1988 he idled the time away.  In July 1988 he drove a motorcycle without a license and was placed on probation.

Teenager C was born in December 1972.  Both his parents worked at the same surgery; his father as pharmacist and his mother as a nurse.  He had an elder brother who was born in January 1972.  While at the primary school, he started causing trouble with threatening behaviour and shoplifting.  Moving on to the middle high school, his verbal and physical violence intensified.  He also rebelled against his father.  After graduating from the middle high school in March 1988 and starting a high school in April, his behaviour worsened.  He would not attend school, would not come home at night, mixed with bad company, was violent at home, and left the school in September.  Since summer that year, C and his elder brother’s rooms became a hangout for a gang of hoodlums as his busy parents were often not at home.  Faced with their own son’s violence, C‘s parents were helpless.  C was also placed under probation after driving a motorcycle without a license.

Teenager D was born in December 1971.  His parents separated when he was four, and divorced two years later.  His father was killed in a traffic accident soon after.  D was raised by his mother and elder sister.  Although he had enrolled at a night school in April 1986, he stopped attending classes only a week later, and left school in September.  In October 1986 he was placed under probation for domestic violence.  In June 1987 and in March 1988, he was on file for minor criminal offences.  He tried a few jobs but did not last long with any of them.

All four of them used to go to the same middle high school with A as the oldest, followed by B and D in the grade below, and C another grade down.  C‘s house had two rooms upstairs which were occupied by C and his elder brother E.  With both parents working and therefore often not at home, those two rooms became the hangout for a gang of youths since summer 1988, about which C‘s parents were at the end of their tether.  B was in the same grade as E, and started to hang out at C‘s that summer.  In October 1988 E‘s motorcycle was stolen and A started to come to C‘s while helping E search for his motorcycle.  A small gang of violent teenagers formed.  Teenager A was feared by the others, and under his leadership the gang behaved like yakuza.  B was second in command, and dominated the others in A‘s absence.

*            *            *            *            *            *            *            *

In the evening of the 25th of November 1988, A and C were wandering about on separate mopeds in Misato, Saitama Prefecture, with the purpose of snatching bags from or raping young women.  Spotting Junko cycling home at around 8:30PM, A told C to “kick that woman”.  C did so and left the scene immediately.  Junko fell to the side.  A approached her saying, “That one’s crazy; I’ve been threatened by him with a knife a short time ago.  You may still be in danger.  Let me walk you home”.

Where Junko’s bicycle was kicked.  A woman points where she found Junko’s locked bike.

e4  e6  e8

Gaining Junko’s trust, A lured her into a nearby warehouse where he dropped his pretence and raped her, saying:  “I’m his mate and we are both yakuza.  If you obey me, I will spare your life.  Let me have sex with you; if you scream you’re dead.”  He then took her to a hotel by taxi where he raped her again.  From the hotel A rang C‘s home, their usual hangout, and told B that he succeeded in raping the girl.  B asked him to keep her, and at around 0:30AM on the 26th of November, A with Junko, B, C and D met up in a park.  After a talk between A and B, they decided to abduct and imprison her. They told her that they knew where she lived from her student notebook (which every student was expected to carry with them while in uniform) and that they would get yakuza to kill all of her family if she tried to escape.  She was taken to C‘s house in the Ayase district of Adachi, Tokyo, where she was easily overpowered and repeatedly gang-raped.

Below:  C‘s house

e2  e1  i1

On the 27th of November, Junko’s worried parents asked the police to search for her.  However, the gang forced Junko to call her home three times between the end of November and the middle of December.  She was made to tell her parents that she had run away from home, was safe with friends, and she wanted the police search to be stopped.

h1h2

At the beginning of December, when the gang were asleep, Junko rang the police, but was stopped by A before she could say anything.  The police immediately phoned back, but A told them it was a mistake.  Angered by her act, they started to torture her.  She was repeatedly punched, kicked, struck by heavy objects, foreign objects inserted into private parts, skin burned with cigarette lighters.  They also stopped feeding her.  Due to both external and internal injuries and malnutrition, she could hardly walk and had to crawl downstairs to the bathroom.  When she could no longer crawl, she was made to urinate into a cup and was forced to drink her own urine.  Because of the unbearable violence and pain, Junko repeatedly begged them to kill her.  Ignoring her pleas, they continued to torture her for days.

For the details of her torture, please visit the links below.

Wikipedia – Murder of Junko Furuta

44 Days Of Hell – The Murder Of Junko Furuta

The brutality of the attacks changed Junko’s appearance completely.  Her badly beaten face was so swollen that her cheeks were as high as her nose.  Her burned and infected skin produced body fluid with a bad smell.  The gang no longer had sexual interest in her.  To fulfill their sexual desires, at around 2:30AM on the 27th of December 1988, the four abducted a 19-year-old woman on her way home.  They pushed her into A‘s car, threatened her with a knife, took her into a motel room and gang-raped her.  Even before abducting Junko, A, B and C had committed a similar gang-rape on the 8th of November.

When January 1989 arrived, the gang talked about what to do with Junko.  “Kill and bury her?”  “Let’s mince her body after killing.”  “We can burn her in an oil drum.”  “Fill the drum with concrete and throw it into the sea.  The police would never find it.”

In the early hours of the 4th of January 1989, after losing a lot of money playing mahjong, heavily frustrated A visited D‘s house.  B and C were also present.  After playing computer games for a while, A decided to vent his anger by beating Junko where she lay, barely alive.  The attack started at around 8AM.  Junko was punched, kicked, had her face covered in hot wax with two short candles placed on her eyelids.  She hardly responded.  They made her stand and struck her face with swinging kicks.  Defenceless Junko fell onto a stereo and collapsed.  She started a fit of convulsions.

The gang knew Junko might die, but did not stop.  She bled from her nose and mouth, and bloody pus emerged from her burns.  Blood spattered all over the room.  Reluctant to get blood on his fists, D covered his hands with plastic bags and taped them around the wrists before punching Junko in the stomach and shoulders twenty or thirty times.  A, B and C imitated D and covered their hands in bags.  They took turns to punch and kick Junko in the face, stomach and thighs.  They also struck Junko in the thighs many times with a heavy iron ball which was part of C‘s kick boxing exercise machine.  D dropped the iron ball onto her stomach several times.  A repeatedly poured lighter fuel on her thighs and set it alight.  Junko initially gestured as if trying to put it off, but gradually became unreactive.

The gang taped around Junko’s ankles so that she could not escape and went out to a sauna.  It is believed that she died in C‘s room some time during the last torture or in the hours that followed.

  The next day when A, B and C were at a florist run by yakuza, C‘s brother E rang to tell that Junko appeared to be dead.  Afraid of the murder being detected, the three gang members decided to get rid of Junko’s body.  They wrapped her body in two blankets, pushed it into a large travel bag and taped around it.  From his former employer, A borrowed a cement mixer and a truck and took them to his home.  They fetched an oil drum which was used as a litter bin in the neighbourhood.  They placed the travel bag which contained Junko’s body in the drum, threw in some concrete blocks, and filled up the drum with fresh concrete.  The drum was taped into a large black litter bag.  At around 8PM the drum was loaded onto the truck.  They planned to drop it into the sea, but on the way they passed an empty space near a development site and just abandoned it there.

A‘s house and drive where they encased Junko’s body in concrete

e11  e10  e9

Where the drum was found

q3

On the 23rd of January 1989, A and B were arrested for the gang-rape of a 19-year-old woman in December.  On the 29th of March, two police officers from the Ayase district (where C’s house was) came to interrogate them.  Women’s underwear had been found at their addresses and the police suspected that they might have committed theft as well.

There had been murder of a mother and her 7-year-old son in Ayase district on the 16th of November the previous year, nine days before Junko’s abduction.  As the case had not been solved (and remains so to this day), during the interrogation one officer lightly uttered a trick question to A.  “You mustn’t kill someone, you know”.  However A thought that the officer meant the murder of Junko Furuta, thinking that B in a separate room had already confessed.  “I am sorry that we killed”.  The officers were astounded as it was just a trick.  They went to the empty space accordingly to the confession, where they found a drum with a strange smell.  The 305kg drum was lifted onto a truck by a crane and taken to the police the following day.

q1  q2

Junko’s body was found in the drum, badly decomposed as she had been dead for over two months.  Edema all over her body.  Malnutrition.  Facial features unrecognizable due to severe disfigurement.  It had to be identified by fingerprints.  On the 1st of April C was arrested for another sexual assault and was rearrested for murder.  The arrest of D and E followed.

*            *            *            *            *            *            *            *

Junko Furuta’s funeral was held on the 2nd of April 1989.  Had she not been murdered, the following day – Monday the 3rd of April – would have been her first day at work.

f7a  f2

One of Junko’s friends’ memorial address:

Jun-chan, welcome back.  I have never dreamed that we would see you again in this way.  You must have been in so much pain… so much suffering…  The happi we all made for the school festival looked really good on you.  We will never forget you.  I have heard that the headmaster has presented you with a graduation certificate.  So we graduated together – all of us.  Jun-chan, there is no more pain, no more suffering.  Please rest in peace…

f6a  f4  f6

Below right:  Junko’s father

f5  f3

Junko’s would-be employer presented her parents with the uniform she was to wear at work.  It was placed inside her coffin.

f8  f1

(Many images in this post were taken from this YouTube video.)

*            *            *            *            *            *            *            *

Despite the shockingly brutal nature of the crime, the identities of the four perpetrators were protected due to all of them being minors at the time of the crime.  Some media however published their names.  On the 12th of July 1991, after overturning the original terms, Tokyo High Court sentenced them as follows.

c1    c2    c3    c4

cc1    cc2    cc3    cc4

A  –  Hiroshi Miyano  :  20 years sentence

A‘s mother sent a big sum of money (50 million yen≒USD425k) to Junko’s parents after selling their family home.  A was released in summer 2009.  In January 2013 he was arrested for fraud, but remained silent during interrogation.  Due to insufficient evidence he was released without charge.

B  –  Jo Kamisaku  :  Indefinite 5 – 10 year term

In court it was revealed that B‘s father started saving money for compensation to Junko’s parents, despite Junko’s parents’ refusal to accept it.  B was released in August 1999.  Married and divorced a Chinese.  Became close to yakuza again.  In May 2004, B (then aged 31) was arrested for the attack, abduction and imprisonment of a man.  During the attack, B boasted that he had “already committed murder” and that he “knew how to coax the police and the prosecutor”.  He was given a four year sentence.  A few sources of information report that B‘s mother vandalized Junko’s grave “because she ruined her son’s life”.  A source of information in more recent years states that B‘s father’s savings, originally meant for Junko’s parents, had been consumed by B for luxuries.

C  –  Nobuharu Minato  :  Indefinite 5 – 9 year term

C married a Romanian in 2006.

D  –  Yasushi Watanabe  :  Indefinite 5 – 7 year term

Seems to be living with his mother after release.  Has not worked since release.

*            *            *            *            *            *            *            *

 The location where Junko’s body was abandoned has been developed since and is now a park.

q4  q6  q5

C‘s parents and brother E were not charged.  Their house in which Junko was forced to spend the last 40 days of her life was demolished after the murder, replaced by a new house and has been owned by a different family.

Before the brutal torture to Junko started, it seems that she once had a meal with C‘s family downstairs.  C‘s mother told her to return home, only to be shouted at (or hit) by C.  The parents were not allowed to go upstairs, let alone look into their sons’ rooms.

Some may wonder why Junko did not try harder to escape.  Initially I thought so too, but then realized that she did not know what was going to happen to her in the end.  Had she known her fate, she would have desperately tried to escape, desperately begged C‘s parents for help.  Her main purpose was to return home.  Afraid of provoking them, I believe she remained “obedient” until she became desperate.

Some sources of information state that C‘s parents were not aware of Junko still being held upstairs.  Other sources, however, state that they were aware, but did not interfere because they were too scared of C‘s violence.  To me,  it is unbelievable that they could not notice violent torture taking place upstairs.  Average Japanese houses are small.  Even though C‘s parents were too busy to spend long hours at home, a home is a home.  I cannot believe they did not know.  I believe they knew, but chose to remain silent.  And the silence resulted in Junko’s death, making their son a murderer.  In my opinion, C‘s parents should have been prosecuted too.  C was a “minor” which meant his parents were responsible for their son.  If C was too violent to intervene, they should have gone to the police.  Had they done it, Junko would have been alive today.

A‘s mother avoiding a reporter (back in 1989)

d1  d2

In the court documents it is stated that all four of the gang “showed deep remorse and pledged to become better members of the society in the future”.  But at least A and B have already betrayed themselves, particularly B who has committed another violent crime.

*            *            *            *            *            *            *            *

For human beings with normal mentality and empathy, it is extremely difficult to hurt another person or an animal for a selfish reason.  I believe that it is because imagining the pain and suffering of the victim generates physiological aversion.  However these four brutes did not stop the violence and torture.  C‘s parents did not call the police – in fear of their own son’s violence and also to avoid losing face in the society (so I believe).

It was reported that the gang invited others to C‘s room and let them rape Junko too.  They also boasted of having an “imprisoned woman” for sex.  Some said that around 30 youths raped her and about 100 people knew of her imprisonment.  Even a young girl once came to see the “imprisoned woman” and doodled on Junko’s face.

  In court, extremely stern words were heard during the sentencing.

“exceptionally grave and atrocious violence inflicted upon a blameless victim “

“inhuman brutality that can be hardly found an example in the history of crime”

“erratic and relentless violence, rape and torture”

“no humanity, no respect for fellow human beings whatsoever”

“murdered so brutally at the young age of 17, the victim’s soul must be wandering in torment”

The judge asserted that there was no word that could fully describe Junko’s pain and suffering.  Hearing the details of the brutal violence and torture set upon Junko, a spectator in the gallery fainted.

At the time of Junko’s death, A, B, C and D were 18, 17, 16 and 17 years old respectively.  Regarded as minors, they were automatically protected by special provisions which only applied to under 18’s.  According to their age, the maximum punishment would have been capital punishment for A and life imprisonment for the others.  The terms they actually received were regarded as too light for what they had done, which disgusted and angered the public.  When a 14-year-old boy committed the Kobe Child Murders in 1997, the public was again furious as the perpetrator seemed to be well protected and supported for his future while the victims’ families were not.  In 1992 a 19-year-old male attacked a family of five, brutally killing four of them in front of the only survivor, a 15-year-old girl.  She was repeatedly raped.  The perpetrator later scoffed that he would not get capital punishment because even A in Junko’s murder case had not.  This 19-year-old was actually sentenced to death and is currently awaiting the execution.

In my opinion, if a crime committed by over 15-year-olds for totally selfish reasons is brutal enough to shock the adults, there is no need to protect their identity, nor to automatically reduce their punishment, just because they are young.  Back in 1989 one of the media which published Junko’s murderers’ names stated that “Brutes have no human rights”.  I could not agree more.

Junko could no longer speak for herself, and there was no doubt that these four brutes murdered her.  Would she have been satisfied with their punishment?  I do not believe so.  NO WAY.  In such an exceptionally brutal case, it should be “An eye for an eye, A life for a life”.  I believe that A should have been hanged, although hanging would have been too swift and gentle for him.  The remaining three should have been locked away in prison for much, much longer.

I support capital punishment.  Although Japan retains capital punishment, it is rarely applied, and usually only when the accused has committed horrendous murder of more than one person for a totally selfish reason.  Every element is taken into account.  Committing brutal murder while fully aware that the maximum punishment is the death sentence means that the perpetrator chooses to take the risk of possible capital punishment, whereas the victim has no choice.  Therefore I cannot see any problem in retaining the death sentence.  Of course the death sentence does not bring the victim back to life, but I strongly believe that brutal murders like this can never, ever be atoned and the most satisfying comfort for the bereaving family can only be achieved by the perpetrator ‘s death.

Had Junko not been murdered, she would have been celebrating her 46th birthday on the 18th of this month.  Would she have become a mother, presenting her parents with grandchildren?  Or had she stayed unmarried and enjoyed a single life?  Her whole future was brutally cut short forever just by being in the wrong place at the wrong time.  Had Junko not been the victim, most likely a different young woman would have been in her place.

Those friends of Junko who wept uncontrollably at her funeral must think of her from time to time.  They may even feel a sense of guilt for being happy because Junko was unable to live her life.  Back then PTSD was not a common word and I am not sure whether the girls were supported with mental care in the aftermath.  At such a tender age, they were faced with the unthinkable brutality of human nature.

1

It was reported that Junko’s mother had a mental breakdown and suffered mental illness after realising what Junko was forced to go through before her death.  I hope that she made a good recovery.  Not much is known about Junko’s family; one source reported that she was an only daughter.  I very much hope that she had siblings and that her parents are gaining comfort from their surviving child(ren) and grandchildren.

Since I have learned the details of Junko’s murder, I cannot help thinking of her near the end of each year.  When people were happily busy preparing for the New Year’s Day (the biggest day of the year in Japan), Junko was away from her loved ones and being relentlessly tortured.  When did the thought occur to her for the first time, that she might never see her family again?  When did she think of her family and friends for the last time?

28 years later the four perpetrators are free members of the society, which makes my blood boil with fury.  If a total stranger like myself can be this angry, how have Junko’s family and friends been living the days, months and years since her murder…  I do not believe in ghosts, but in this case, I wish ghosts exist.  I wish Junko pays visits to them, torments them and drives them to death.  If it is not the case, I hope that the four brutes finally realise the magnitude of what they did to her as they grow older, and are tormented by hellish guilt to their very last breath.

Rest In Peace, Miss Junko Furuta…..

[Postscript dated 07/10/2019]

In the comment to the related article below, “Aly” informed me of the online memorial to Junko.  If interested, please visit “findagrave” and enter Junko Furuta’s name.  I have been moved to see many warm contributions left for her by people around the world.

[Related article:  Shinji Minato’s Repeat Offence]

 

147 thoughts on “The 28th Anniversary of the Death of Junko Furuta

  1. Dear Yumig, I have twice posted a reply here, the first BEFORE the one above, when I cahnged my profile name, which disapeared, afterwards, and again yesterday, my reply just disappeared…..I don’t understand why this is happening!

    Liked by 1 person

  2. I posted my reply for a third time, but after 10 minutes it disappeared again – I give up!
    Thank you ,Yumig for keeping Junko’s memory alive!

    Like

  3. Dear Yumig,
    I contacted Word Press about the disappearing reply, and it seemed that the most likely reason was that the blog owner deleted the reply. If this is the case, I don’t understand, but perhaps you didn’t like the link I enclosed? Or maybe it was a technical fault as I had just changed my user-name, I have no idea, but that’s what I choose to believe! ….. Anyway, please know this,-
    The inhuman, barbaric cruelty that Junko suffered will haunt me for the rest of my life, and I will never forget her. I now devote much of my spare time to the cause of helping to end violence to women and girls in whatever way I can, and Junko’s story is one which has had a strong influence in motivating me to keep on going. Through your blog I also found out about ”Find A Grave” and visited Junko’s memorial, which was very moving to read, thank you!
    Once again, thank you for all you have done and do in keeping Junko’s memory alive!
    Kristina

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Dear Kristina,
      I am sorry for the confusion! I believe that after approving your comment I clicked on APPROVE again (and disapproving by doing so), thinking I had failed to approved it.
      May I understand that you left the first comment under the name of Kristina on March 14 at 11:44pm and therefore you are the lady who had posted the comment under the name of Akansha on March 10 at 8:44am? I hope so because I did not receive any comment between the two.
      Just like you, I will never forget Junko for the rest of my life. You are now fighting to end violence towards women? It is the best tribute to her and her loved ones!
      Thank you very much for reading and leaving comments.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Dear Yumig!
        I was so happy to hear from you, thank you! I posted my first reply under my old user-name of ”syarktis” AFTER the comment from Akansha, who is someone else, and just BEFORE my first short comment about changing my user-name on March 14 at 11:44pm. My first long reply which was posted under ”syarktis” I found had disappeared when I logged in the next day….. I’m sorry for the confusion this caused, perhaps I didn’t wait long enough after posting the reply before editing my profile.
        Thank you for your kind words, and I wish you all the best!
        Kristina

        Like

  4. Dear yuming,
    I wish those illiterate folly guys will suffer same as how the 17 year old girl suffered. My humble request if can kill them right away.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Dear Yuming
    After reading a lot of informatio about the case, I’ve found that yours is the more useful for a project I’m currently working on, I would like to know if you have the full translation of the court documents. I’m a med student and I choose Junko’s case as a project for one of my classes but I haven’t been able to find a more reliable source. Unfortunately my japanese is very basic and I’m afraid I can’t read the whole document. I hope you can help me out.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Dear Elly, thank you for reading. I am afraid I do not have the full translation of the court documents. I would neither be able to do it for you as it is written in formal classical Japanese and therefore too difficult and time-consuming for me. I am so sorry for not being able to help.

      Like

      1. I understand, thank you very much anyways for the information you have already published, it has proven to be real useful for my project.

        Like

  6. I really am so utterly disturbed by this case, only read about it a short while ago. The torture and abuse is just so depraved. I cannot understand why they did not receive the death penalty, surely their actions were evident enough that they were dangerous and not needed in this world. Her family must have been and may still be haunted by the brutality their daughter went through, unable to grieve adequately. I really hope the disgusting animals who abused her are suffering, I pray they are and will always be plagued with the horrendous torture they made her endure. I hope they never have a moment where she doesn’t cross their minds and they become as crazy as their actions were.

    Liked by 1 person

  7. I’m over a year late, but just read about Junko’s murder, and feel so sick about how she died. I was wondering if it is possible to send her family a letter telling them that there are people who are thinking about them and wishing them well.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I am afraid I do not think it is possible as Furuta family’s personal information has never been published. I could not even find out whether Junko had a sibling/siblings. I too often wonder how her family have been living the days, weeks and years since this horrendous loss. All I can do is just hope that they have somehow pulled themselves together and found strength to carry on…

      Liked by 1 person

  8. I just cannot believe the unrelenting depravity and evil unleashed on Junko. My heart aches for her, her family and friends and I am furious that the perpetrators were not executed. And frankly I am shocked that apparently no one has attempted vigilante justice, regardless of potential retaliation.

    One aspect I wondered while reading, is there any information on the religious beliefs of Junko and her family?

    Liked by 2 people

    1. Hi Scott, thank you for reading and leaving comments. I am afraid I have no information on the religion Junko and her family held. I can only imagine that they might have been just like the majority of the Japanese – with no particular belief and follow the custom which means, take a newborn baby to a Shinto shrine to wish its long and healthy life, get married where you fancy (shrine/church/temple) and hold a funeral at a temple. That’s what I think, but I left Japan nearly 30 years ago so please accept my apologies if I am out of touch!

      I too am furious that the four brutes are living freely in the society. At the age of around 50, their personal information is still firmly protected. I am truly disappointed by the Japanese media that none of them seems to have disclosed their names (if changed), addresses and recent images. For what they did to Junko, the rest of the society should be informed of their whereabouts. If they were attacked as a result, who cares? If I were still in Japan, I would not like any of them living in my neighbourhood!

      Liked by 1 person

  9. It’s interesting that both of those savages married two gaijin. Mixed marriages in Japan are indeed weird as hell.
    Indeed, in a country as peaceful as Japan, it’s difficult to believe that such an inhuman case actually took place. And I’m disappointed as well with the judiciary system of this country.
    There was a similar case perpetrated in Hong Kong, named “Hello Kitty murder”, in case you want to check.
    R.I.P. Furuta-chan.

    Like

  10. Those 4 inhuman shit are still alive and live in Tokyo, they also married (how can they wives married with a monster?0.0). I live in tokyo and if I think they are near me I m feeling bad and helpless …I hope they will rot in hell and every person who didn’t do nothing to save her! We want justice . I read this tragic story years ago and This story haunted me until now… i couldn’t sleep for nights and I’m still sad for her .I wish she can be born again and have an happy life. I pray also for her family and friends. Rest In Peace angel

    Liked by 2 people

  11. It was stated by Shûkan Bunshun and other outlets that the main perpetrators of this atrocity are “Japanese citizens” of North Korean descent.
    Perhaps that would explain the visceral hatred towards Japanese people?

    Regardless, it is disgusting to see how those 4 savages are still out there.
    They are a public danger.

    Liked by 1 person

  12. I am new to this case but I must say upon reading her story, it felt like I was there watching her while she twisted in pain, and I couldnt help but compare my life to her. Even if I were to die young, it still wouldnt be as painful as what she went through and it is unfair. I dont think my feelings right now are mere sympathy. I’m packed with many realizations of fear and disgust for the place we live in. I really want to forget,and just be ignorant about all this, but I can’t. That’s not who I am. The least I can do for Junko, is nothing really. But I’ve decided to remember her story for as long as I live taking some of her pain inflicted in mine. This was a nice read by the way. Although the content is entirely sad, I could feel your sincerity in it.

    Like

  13. Who would like to be even near to those monsters SHAME ON THEM I really wanted to visit Japan one day but After reading about Junko and knowing they are free to attack people again is soo scary I decided even if I die but I will never go to Japan their punishment should be DEATH but they are living a normal life Japanese laws did injustice with Junko who was a Japanese so what will they do to a foreigner like me No justice it’s a shame such a developed country doesn’t give punishment to rapists and after reading Nanking Massacre I knew japanese men are psychos not all of them but majority are dangerous and they are still in japan
    (GIRLS PLEASE BE SAFE NO ONE CAN PROTECT YOU LIKE YOUR PARENTS TELL THEM THE TRUTH IF SOMEONE PROPOSES U OR FORCES YOU TELL THEM THE TRUTH DON’T BE AFRAID TO SPEAK UP)

    Like

  14. Gosh, I heard about this horrible crime a while ago and ended up reading about it again tonight. The black and white picture of that house where the crime took place is like something from a horror movie to me. Just eerie…How on God’s green earth can people be so disgusting and heartless and the authorities so cruel and incompetent? They should have been tormented mentally for days by 24-carat experts who knew how to make one swallow their own tongue with fear and then thrown from the highest building in Japan one by one. I do not CARE how old they were either because this was not just a petty crime. If you’re old enough to be so horrible and rotten, and to make plans to get away with it, don’t play the age card when you’re caught. What about the ones who knew and did nothing? The rotten person who apparently drew on the poor girl’s face? They too are very much walking the same streets as other innocent people today!! How is it justice that the creatures were released and were given the opportunity to experience things that Junko never will? Crazy, crazy world we live in. This reminded me of a horrific crime which took place years ago in Istanbul, Turkey and still haunts me to this day. A mother and her daughter, a young teacher, were abducted by a bunch of drug users and were raped brutally. They slashed the mother’s throat and left her for dead. They then stabbed the daughter, Serpil Yesilyurt, repeatedly, gouged her eyes out and removed her nipples. Guess what? All four were released after a general official pardon, with at least one of them having reoffended. Dis-gus-ting. May Junko and Serpil rest in peace and may those things never ever experience peace in their hearts, minds and souls for the rest of their miserable, pointless existence. May God give the victims’ family members, relatives and friends strength and patience. May every member of the governments and “justice” systems who let such monsters get away with hurting innocent people anywhere in the world lose their positions and live with guilt for the rest of their lives. And may God protect the innocent and defenceless.

    Like

  15. Hello dear!!

    I’m gathering research for a YouTube video on Junko Furuta, and as yours comes mainly from the actual Japanese court documents, I’m regarding you information of events high up on my list.

    Firstly, I wanted to say thank you for putting this information out there. There’s a lot I’ve read elsewhere that has so many of the details incorrect. A lot of people tend to just regurgitate information they’ve read and not try to fact check it or check it against other sources, and often times, there’s no truth to it. I’m trying to avoid this.

    This is where my question comes in. Did anything that you read state how Hiroshi Miyano had a crush on Junko and had asked her out, to which she refused?? I’ve seen this a couple of different places, and it’s been left out a couple of others, so I’m not sure what the truth of it is. The articles that include it are basically saying Hiroshi Miyano’s ego was hurt, and that’s why he chose to do all of this to Junko in the first place, to get revenge. Do you believe this was the case or was it simply a case of being in the wrong place at the wrong time for Junko??

    Thanks in advance for your time and reply!! I look forward to hearing from you!!!

    Like

  16. Hello Jill,

    Thank you for reading and leaving a comment. It is December again and I cannot help but thinking about Junko…

    As for your question – while reading a lot on the internet to write this post, I remember coming across one statement that one of the four brutes had spotted and fancied her. Because only one source stated so, however, I decided not to include it in my post. There was no mention of it in the court document either, but instead it stated that A and B also committed gang rape twice. I believe the first one was committed a few weeks before Junko’s abduction and the second one during her imprisonment. They were genuinely despicable inhuman brutes who do not deserve to exist!!

    C’s home where Junko was kept captive was only 8-9 km from where Junko lived, so I believe they were “hunting” for a woman at random on mopeds when and where tragic Junko happened to be hurrying home on a bicycle. Had it not been Junko, it would have been a different young girl – that’s what I believe.

    Like

    1. Thank you so very much for your time and response! Yes, I believe you are correct on multiple counts. Thinking back now, I only recall seeing one, possibly two, references stating Junko had turned down A for a date and he was bitter about it. As the court records give no indication of it, I highly doubt it’s true. That’s definitely something it seems would have been included, motive! I also agree with you Junko was in the wrong place at the wrong time, and if it hadn’t been her, it would have been another young girl. How sad it is to think that someone, one way or another, was going to be placed in that predicament that night, and it all came down to being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Heartbreaking!

      Junko’s poor mother! To think she was that close the entire time and they had no idea. It’s no wonder the poor woman had so much trouble after Junko’s passing. I’ve always said losing a child is the worst thing someone could ever go through, in my opinion. So it’s no stretch for me to see where a complete mental breakdown would easily come into play, especially after learning of the horrific and grisly torture Junko went through. To imagine your baby suffering like that….. god… I don’t even have words.

      I fully intend to give you credit in my YT episode for the information I got here. I, again, wanted to thank you for your time and also thank you for writing this blog. Yours is the only I’ve found that is supposedly taken from the original court documents, so it has been an absolutely priceless find trove of information for me! Thank you again for all your time and translating!!

      Like

      1. Hi Jill, thank you for your comment of gratitude. The new year arrived and the 32nd anniversary of Junko’s death is approaching…

        I could not agree more with you that losing your child, let alone in such a horrific and brutal way, is the worst thing to happen to a parent. When the murder happened, I was closer to Junko’s age, but 32 years on I am a mother myself. I cannot imagine how Junko’s poor poor mother has lived the minutes, days, weeks, months and years since the tragedy.

        I sometimes wonder whether Junko’s soul would be in better peace if her case was totally forgotten, and therefore I should remove this post from the internet. But I also feel that, the more sorrow and empathy people feel for her, the better peace she now rests in becomes. So I have no intention to remove this post for the time being.

        Thank you again for reading and leaving comments.

        Like

      2. Dearest Yumig,

        Please delete this post when you see it. I’m not urge how else to get ahold of you. I wanted to send you a link to the video that is now up on youtube, but I also didn’t want it to seem like I was trying to advertise it on your blog. I thought you may be interested in seeing it, however, since this is a story that seems to affect you, as well. If you get a chance to watch it, I hope you enjoy it.

        And again, I say thank you for all of your information and the time you put into this blog. Seeing how you had access to a lot of the translation of material, I truly regarded this as the closest any of us with “American interest” could get. So thank you, again.

        Here’s the link to the video:

        Like

  17. Dear Yumig,
    I would like to know if the video recording pictures shown in the article are still on YouTube. I could not find it anywhere, but if you could post the link it would be very helpful. It’s yet another December when Junko was brutally tortured 32 years ago. May her soul rest in peace…
    Thank you.

    Like

    1. Hello Khushi, I have just tried to watch the YouTube video with success. Here is the link.

      Hope you can watch it too!

      Yes, it’s December again and I cannot help but think of Junko.
      May she rest in eternal peace…

      Like

  18. They (the gang members) should of been hung to death inside Aokigahara ‘Suicide Forest’ as punishment for their brutal murder of Junko Furuta.

    Like

  19. Hi, Yuming

    I’ve read about Junko Furuta about 2 days ago.

    I wanted to ask you if you know exactly where Junko’s grave is, because I have read that it had been destroyed and also that the place where it used to be has been remodeled.
    Thanks 4 all the job you did.

    Like

    1. Hi Marc,

      I am afraid I have no idea where Junko’s grave is. Knowing that her grave was once vandalized and that in any society there are always wicked people, I personally believe the whereabouts of her grave should remain a secret so that her soul can rest in peace.

      There is an online grave dedicated to her – findagrave Junko Furuta – where you can leave flowers and words for her.

      Like

  20. Dear Yumig! I come over this horrific tragic story about Junko on internet at New year while reading about Ted Burny. This case has shaken my soul very deep. Can´t stop thinking how this could happen and how cruel human nature can be. It is important to know that such things actually can happen. And that persons who have done such things walk free in our society. We will never forget You Junko. Rest in peace. Regards from Maria in Sweden

    Like

    1. Dear Kristina, thank you very much for reading and leaving your comment. Yes, Junko’s case was brutal beyond belief… I too was shocked to the core how cruel human beings could be towards other fellow human beings, let alone a defenseless young girl. In a sense I feel ashamed that it happened in my home country which is usually very orderly and safe.
      I hope Junko’s soul rests in forever peace and her life which was so brutally cut short is missed by many around the world…..

      Like

  21. Hello again! I went to Japan and Tokyo two years ago. Didn´ t
    see any violence and felt safer in the streets than at home. The people I met where friendly. But there are criminals and sick people everywhere. It surely is easier to be anonymous and hide such crimes in bigger cities.

    Like

    1. I am thinking of it was economic interests for documentation and recording for selling into locked rooms. Maybe we never will know.

      Like

  22. I just discovered this case while going down a rabbit hole after coming across the setagaya family case on Sunday tv show. Im new in tokyo. Shocked to the core! 😦 actually sobbed. It is even more inconceivable for me that there might be close to a hundred people who visited her but did nothing?? Somehow i find this fact more atrocious than the brutal crime. These people are complicit as hell and should all be charged. My heart cries. It seems to me that junko didnt have sufficient coverage so the media and japanese society did her a huge injustice imo. The public should had rally to push for heavier punishment. The sheer cavalier attitude… somehow i dont think this would fly today. The way the japanese media covers or should i say, doesnt sufficiently cover the twitter killer case speaks volume of the sick mentality of ‘pushing things under the rug’. Its a brain rot that i find in a lot of people here, my husband included. They tend to brush away uncomfortable facts.
    She deserves more justice and more coverage, not of the brutality but of the injustice.
    Sorry im rambling. I pray for her soul. RIP sweet angel. This world doesnt deserve u

    Like

  23. What a really horrible crime… Those four gisgusting animals – they’re all should be hanged or imprisoned in psychiatric hospital till their lives ended! I discovered it when tried to find the news about a murder of Kayo Matsuzawa. Are you sure that you showing the correct place where the drum with the poor girl body was found? These photos, from what the source? Or it’s just your personal opinion? Anyway I have another version for the location and I found it just last evening.

    Like

    1. Hi thanks for your comment. As far as I know the photos which I found on the internet show the correct location where Junko’s body had been left, but as you know, one can never be certain of the credibility. I am afraid I cannot remember where I found the photos either, so all I can say is I myself believed them and you are free to either believe them or not. To be honest I am not too interested in the exact location, because I think the brutes were only interested in saving their skin, so any place would have done for them as long as they were not witnessed while dumping the drum.

      Like

      1. Hello, Yumig. Thanks, I got your opinion well. I think most of watchers of that Japanese documentary you posted above noticed the exact last location of poor Furuta-chan… Maybe someone interested – today it’s a left north corner of the Wakasu main building #3🌹🌹
        Last days I started try to find the location of that f###### house in Ayase; street by street, quarter by quarter.. I know that it was demolished and now it will have the new buildings. Yes, it will be difficult but I’ll try.
        I’m really don’t know why I became interested with this horrendous story… I just looked for some of the high-profile crimes, cases for my manga. And finally… I am a lawyer.
        Regards.

        Like

  24. Hi Yumig. I only learned about this terrible crime a few weeks ago and since then I can’t forget it. Especially with new today in the UK.

    This is the saddest and the most disturbing thing I have ever known about. I don’t think I will or can ever forget. Thank you for sharing your information and thoughts. I hope by doing this, the world can learn about Junko.

    I agree with you, I don’t believe in ghosts, but if there is such a thing, I hope she will torment the monsters for their rest of their lives. I hope it drives then insane.

    I just want to hug her and save her. I know it’s not possible, and she will never know how much anger people out there have towards the perpetrators. When my time is up, I want to meet her and tell her how sorry I am for and I hope she has been reincarnated to a better life.

    Like

    1. Thank you for your comment. I do not think I will ever forget Junko either. Yes, like you, I do hope she will be safe and happy in her next life.

      And the perpetrators, the worst possible life full of pain both physically and mentally!

      Like

  25. Hi, I read your blog a few days ago, but today I decided to leave a comment about this case. I knew about this case 2 months ago, and there hasn’t been a day that I haven’t thought about it. Somehow, reading about the suffering junko went through, made me less selfish, thinking about my little problems, and seeing that people are suffering or have suffered much worse. I’m from Brazil, exactly eighteen years ago there was a similar case, where a couple was kidnapped by 5 men, the boy was killed and the girl was raped for 4 days, until she was killed with 15 stab wounds by the leader. the curious thing is that the leader was 16 years old at the time. There was great repercussion in the media, and calls to reduce the legal age of majority in Brazil. here many crimes go unpunished for being committed by teenagers, but the cases here involve robberies. rapists in brazil are punished by the inmates themselves who do not tolerate abuse against women and children. these men are free, and the leader who was 16 years old at the time, is 34 years old and remains in prison because it was found that he has a high degree of psychopathy, and it is a risk to turn to society. created a penitentiary just for him and other individuals with similar disorders. But nothing compares to the junko case, I often wondered if in fact everything she went through is true, and how would a human being survive 40 days without food, without water, with pain… do you really believe that? I did a lot of research and even read the sentence in the case https://www.courts.go.jp/app/files/hanrei_jp/261/020261_hanrei.pdf , in no time is mentioned all the absurdities that we’ve already read, but they give highlight the latest torture. Anyway, I could never measure the suffering she went through. in a reedit article they mentioned “why did God allow this to happen”, I also had this question, and for a short moment I felt my faith being shaken, but I soon realized that the evil is in the human being, we are evil for nature, one more than the other, no doubt. And even someone who is an atheist will wish that God existed, just for this girl to have a well-deserved rest in paradise, and for criminals to pay for everything in hell. We will never know how to explain why this happened, all 12 apostles suffered brutal deaths, including Jesus, with this we can see that not even those closest to God were free from suffering. The rules of the Code of Criminal Procedure apply to the process, trial and execution of criminal cases arising from the practice of domestic and family violence against women.
    This world is cruel, but what gives me hope is that one day none of this will be witnessed for those who go to paradise, we will be separated from bad people, there will be no disease, hunger, fights, sadness, pain. We won’t even have to spend years studying and working to have a “good life.” I am a Christian, and I would like to visit Japan at some point just to carry posters in protest, asking for justice for junko and other women from Japan. I read that japan is the safest country due to the very low rate of violence and deaths caused by firearms. but cases of domestic violence, rape and pedophilia are increasing. and in my research I found that there are many movies that portray rape and torture, and they are all Japanese! there are several productions from the 70s and 80s showing this, which I assume were consumed by the 4 assassins, and they decided to reproduce it all with junk. I hope that you and anyone else who comes to read about her case, don’t lose faith, one day all the injustice that was done to her will be done by God. The filmmakers on this case, the mangakas, the judges, the parents of each criminal, everyone who knew about that situation will have to give an account after death, because no human being has escaped judgment.

    Like

  26. Hi, I’m the Brazilian who commented yesterday. I would like to apologize for reposting the courtsjapan link. anyway, I think this is the most concrete file on the case. I always wanted to understand how the police would know how to affirm everything that happened to junkoo, since almost 3 months have passed since his supposed death. a criminal never claims things, even with evidence. on the other hand, I believe that many things were mentioned by criminals to make them seem meaner, and because they were sure they wouldn’t be in jail for so many years. we must remember that japan decimated Chinese and Korean women, raping and torturing them, and that many Japanese films are focused on this theme, which leads me to believe that for Japanese (men) this is not a problem. even many women still suffer sexual harassment and even rape, but even those who witness it do nothing. I’ve already seen a report on youtube of a nikei (Brazilian woman of Japanese descent) who is living in Tokyo, and had to intervene in a situation where a Japanese woman would be raped and everyone who was watching the scene was laughing, and saying “she will be raped”. very strange situation, here in brazil, people would certainly intervene and beat the criminal. there was a case in brazil in 2019, in which a woman was beaten for 4 hours by a man she met on the internet. her face was disfigured and nearly died. https://veja.abril.com.br/brasil/mulher-espancada-por-4h-no-rio-diz-ter-certeza-que-agressor-a-dopou/ why I believe a lot of what they mention about junko didn’t happen, or if it did, it was all in a short period of time and not in 40 days. no human being would be able to survive that long being beaten, with a broken nose and ribs, etc. one more observation, I had already watched that documentary, but I didn’t understand anything. Are the boys interviewed the criminals or their friends?

    Like

    1. If I translated/understood correct it was a young criminals (especially interviewed in the van). Yes, these disgusting bruts, that dirtiest shame of their parents!

      Like

      1. Thanks for the answer, I came to the blog today because tomorrow it turns 33 years old that junko finally had rest from all that suffering, there is not a day that doesn’t think about it.

        Like

  27. Today is 33 years to the day Junko was abducted. May her sweet soul have eternal peace. May one day, she will get true justice. May her family be free from psychological trauma of losing their daughter and sister. May her captors feel extra pain today. (I’m feel so much anger towards them)

    Rest in peace sweet angel.

    Thank you for keeping this site open for those who want to never forget such a tragic event.

    Like

    1. Thank you so much for remembering the day and saying exactly what I was feeling. I wonder whether any of her murderers even thought of her on the anniversary of her abduction.
      Had she not been victimized, she would have been 50 years old now. Thinking of her life which was cut short in such unimaginably brutal way and of her future taken away forever, I will never be able to forget her…

      Like

  28. Furuta Junko’s tragic death has caused many sleepless nights and heartbreak. I cant imagine her pain or thoughts before she died, but I’ll will forever remember her beautiful face her smile and name.
    R.I.P Junko Furuta; you are gone but not forgotten.

    Like

  29. 33 years ago today, You left this cruel world. It wasn’t your choice that time has ran out for you. I’m so sorry for this. You were brave and strong beyond belief. No one can endure what you had to do and your mind and body could take no more. Please don’t be angry with yourself. You tried and tried everyday until you couldn’t. Wherever you are, whatever you’re doing, please know, you’re not forgotten. I just wish I could hug you. Xxx

    Thanks again for keeping this site yummig. Xx

    Like

  30. First of all, I would like to congratulate Yumig-san and all people who aren“““““““t indifferent to this monstrously cruel crime (to Junko Furuta-san herself I think)! I wish that we discover such frightening cases from real life as few as possible. I wish that nothing like this ever, ever happens anywhere on the Earth again!
    ============================================
    Finally. Near the end of last year, thanks to some concerned Tokyo residents, I managed to find the place where the cursed three-arched house in Ayase district of Adachi city was located. My amazement was almost endless. The thing is, I’ve repeatedly stumbled upon this unremarkable passageway with a dead end that I can’t go into to take a closer look (with Google streets view). Today there is a completely different house, of a different design and color. But for the best look at that place as possible we can use some of the little trick of the Google map.
    The close proximity of the Ayase police station and even the prison to this sinister place is quite symbolic, in my opinion.

    Like

    1. I have no idea where the house was, just the police station… I always wondered how people didn’t hear her asking for help, or screaming. the houses in japan are tiny and close together… I think about this girl every day, to the point where I think I’m going to go crazy… I always wonder if it’s true that she survived so many days, because it’s humanly impossible (I think ). I’m Brazilian, and many Brazilians who live in Japan talk about the prejudice that foreigners suffer. japan is culturally competitive, and many are heavily bullied in schools and at work. unfortunately junko was born in the wrong country, i would never want to be japanese. brazil has many problems due to the corruption of politicians, but people here are solidary and friendly.

      Like

    2. It is great relief to know that I am not alone to remember and think of Miss Junko Furuta at this time of year. Because there is nothing I can do to turn the clock back and save her, I would like to believe that the more people remember her and pray for her soul to rest in peace, the more peacefully she could rest.
      I thank everyone for reading and leaving comments…!

      Like

      1. we thank you for keeping the blog active…
        ps. I believe this terrible case occurred, as those idiots were addicted to pornography and Japanese movies themed torture against women. in my research i found several japanese movies that classify as “horror” where they reproduce terrible things against women. also when searching for “japanese movies on torture” there are several images of the junko case too… japan is a bizarre country.

        Like

  31. Absolutely unfathomable. Even the most savage animals do not have the mental capacity to think of such haunting torture.

    I cannot believe the killers are enjoying their freedom right as I’m typing this. What must they be doing right now? Making coffee or watching a movie, as if they are like a human?
    All the while Junko’s bones are rotting, still stained with the trauma she had to face.

    God cannot be real. Shame on Japan’s judicial system and members of society for failing to give Junko’s family justice and devalueing human life to less than an animal.

    Like

  32. I almost cried when I first read about this incident. This incident so deeply disturbed me that I thought about it for quite a few days. Even now I come back and read about this incident quite often. Only because my sympathy to her was so strong. I see her kind, sweet face and think about the unthinkable pain she had gone through. It’s one of the saddest incident I have ever read. It’s quite sad that people have forgotten about it and even Media doesn’t care about it. I see her face and only wish if she somehow survived the ordeal and would now be leading a happy life…💔

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s